VOLUME FRACTION EFFECT OF CALCINED EGGSHELL AND TITANIUM OXIDE HYBRID NANO PARTICLES ON VISCOSITY AND THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF AUTOMOBILE COOLANT
This study seeks the effects of the addition of nanoparticles on the viscosity and thermal conductivity of ethylene glycol-based automobile engine coolants. Nanoparticles were prepared from crushed, calcined eggshells and tin oxide blends. Formulation of nanofluid was conducted by volume fraction addition of nanoparticles from 0.001ø to 0.050ø to ethylene glycol. The fluid was completely homogenized with a magnetic stirrer and ultrasonic sonicator for particle stability. Viscosities and thermal conductivities were determined at temperatures between 30 to 70oC using digital rotary viscometers equip with a thermocouple. Results obtained revealed that a higher volume fraction of the process fluid resulted in higher heat transfer coefficients. Thermal conductivity of the base fluid was thus observed to depend on the volume fraction of nanoparticles and the increase with the increase in volume fraction is because of the high heat thermal conductivities of the elemental content of the nanoparticle. Therefore, thermal conductivity enhancement in nanofluids is essentially dependent on the nature of the nanoparticles.
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